The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a UN body established in 1988, regularly assesses the latest climate science and establishes consensus reports for countries. During this period, the climate movement experienced very worrying headwinds. President Donald Trump officially withdrew the United States from the Paris climate accord in November 2020 – the only country to do so – while President-elect Joe Biden promised to reinstate the first day of his term in January 2021. An August 2019 poll showed that 71% of American voters want the federal government to be able to do more to combat climate change. A similar majority believe that this will have a positive impact on the economy and employment. William Nordhaus of Yale University writes for foreign affairs and thinks about how to remedy the failure of the world`s climate efforts. The idea was to create a dynamic structure that could develop along with changes in economies, technology and political will, said Christiana Figueres, who headed the UN office, which coordinated the Discussions that culminated in the Paris Agreement. This flexibility, she noted, has recently enabled a number of nations to strengthen their initial commitments by promising to reduce their net climate emissions to zero by 2050. The European Union, Canada, South Korea, Japan, South Africa and the United Kingdom have all made this promise.
U.S. President-elect Joe Biden has supported that goal and promised to make the fight against climate change a centerpiece of his presidency. Meanwhile, China, the world`s largest source of emissions, has announced that it will reduce climate pollution faster than originally promised, with the goal of achieving carbon neutrality by 2060. To move towards a more sustainable future, the historic 2015 Paris Agreement set a target of limiting the average increase in global temperature to a level well below 2 degrees Celsius and continuing efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To achieve this goal, each country should prepare and report a defined national contribution (CNN) every five years. The NDCs contain goals, measures and policies and form the basis of national plans to combat climate change. Implementation of the agreement by all Member States will be evaluated every five years, with the first evaluation in 2023. The result will be used as an input for new national contributions from Member States.  The inventory will not be national contributions/achievements, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. National communication reports often cover several hundred pages and cover a country`s actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a description of its weaknesses and effects of climate change.
 National communications are established in accordance with guidelines adopted by the UNFCCC Conference of Parties. Contributions (planned) at the national level (NDC), which form the basis of the Paris Agreement, are shorter and less detailed, but also follow a standard structure and are subject to technical review by experts. This is part of the Paris Agreement`s efforts to “reduce” emissions. Since analysts agreed in 2014 that CNN would not limit temperature rise below 2 degrees Celsius, the global inventory again brings the parties together to assess the evolution of their new CNN to permanently reflect a country`s “highest possible ambitions.”  In 2015, the Arc de Triomphe announced the signing of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change Mitigation.